Reaching youth at the point of sale: cigarette marketing is more prevalent in stores where adolescents shop frequently
The study investigates whether cigarette marketing is more common in stores where teenagers often shop.
Design, setup and participants: trained coding personnel counted cigarette advertising, products and other marketing materials in the store census of tobacco sales in Tracy (n = 50), California.
Combination of focus groups and internal data
A class survey of middle school students (n = 2125) identified the stores that teenagers visit most often.
Main outcome measures: the number of marketing materials and shelf space of the three most popular cigarette brands and other brands among teenage smokers were measured respectively.
Results: compared to other stores in the same community, the marketing materials of shops that teenagers often shop are almost three times that of marl Road, Camel and Newport, and these brands have more shelf space.
Conclusion: regardless of whether tobacco companies are interested in targeting young people at the point of sale, these findings highlight the importance of strategies to reduce the number and impact of cigarette marketing materials in the site.
Since the general Settlement Agreement (MSA), the focus on tobacco marketing for young people has focused on the Journal.
Little is known about the industry\'s attempts to reach young people at the point of sale.
In 2001, American tobacco spent $0. 173 billion on magazine advertising, compared to $9.
Retail Marketing 5 billion
These expenses are used to pay for traditional logo and function items (such as brand clocks, hand baskets and counter mats), price reduction for consumers (\"buy two, buy one for free \") fees and incentives for retailers to display cigarettes in prime locations, especially around the counter.
A survey of about 3000 stores in 163 school communities in the United States found that 84% of stores and 69% of at least one brand feature program have some form of tobacco advertising.
S. tobacco company spending on retail marketing has more than doubled since 1998 MSA.
An impact of this expenditure was observed in stores in California, and from 2000 to 2002 the average number of cigarette marketing materials increased by 31%.
There is a large amount of tobacco advertising and products around candy and around the counter, and 8-10 retail tobacco marketing has left a clear impression on young consumers.
In a survey of young people from the northeast of England, 629 teenagers aged 15 and 16 believeof-
Marketing of buying cigarettes.
11 in the United States, teenagers reporting at least weekly exposure to retail tobacco marketing are more likely to try smoking, which brands are preferred by 12, 13 years old and teenage smokers (camel or marl Road) the nearest convenience store to the school has the most advertisements.
A wide range of cigarette advertising and promotions are not unique to American stores.
For example, after points are banned in countries such as Australia, Canada, Ireland and New Zealand,of-
Cigarette sales advertising, the traditional logo is replaced by the \"power wall\" of the cigarette bag, the number exceeds the number required to provide consumers.
Exposure to such displays may distort the perception of adolescents about the availability, use and popularity of cigarettes.
Some studies have shown that whether or not tobacco companies are targeting teenagers at point-of-sale, they may be over-exposed to this form of cigarette marketing.
In metropolises such as Boston, Massachusetts, and San Jose, California, cigarette ads found in shop windows 300 away from the school are much more numerous than found in stores further away from the school.
8, 10 combined with data from store observations and school-based surveys, the study was the first to examine whether cigarette marketing materials were more prevalent in stores where teenagers often shop.
Methods on February 2002, a survey was conducted at a store in Tracy, California.
A Central Valley community about 500 kilometers east of San Francisco (population, 62, 100 km ).
In 2000, Tracy\'s population was 65% White, 8% Asian, 6% African-Americans, 1% American Indians, 20% other or more categories, and 28% of the population was Hispanic --
Comparable to the state population.
21 A list of addresses of all Tracy businesses paying tobacco taxes was obtained from California tobacco control and verified by telephone directory and neighborhood canvassing. Two tobacco-
Only shops that neither sell snacks nor allow young people under the age of 18 to enter are excluded from the store population, with a total of 50 stores.
Two young people with extensive experience in retail marketing were trained to count and classify tobacco marketing materials in stores using established agreements.
22 taking into account the role of cigarette packaging as an advertising tool, protocols 23, 24 were expanded to measure shelf space allocated to cigarettes.
Brand logos, shelves, product displays, and functional items such as counter mats, shopping baskets, three cigarette brands calculated separately for the most popular youth in the United States (Marlboro camel, and Newport) 25 and the sum of other cigarette brands.
The shelf space of cigarettes is measured by calculating the product surface, defined as the space allocated to the front cigarette packaging of the shelves and displays.
There are 26 cigarette boxes with the longest stacking surface, including 5;
The shortest carton on the front is counted as two.
In contrast, programmers also counted brand logos, shelf units, product displays and feature items for the three most advertised beer brands in the United States (Budweiser, Miller and Heineken.
27 The marketing materials of other beer brands of Mar are not counted, as the huge number makes it impossible for the coder to complete the agreement within a reasonable time.
The coder counted some signs that the purchase of tobacco products supplied by the tobacco industry needed to be identified, such as the \"We Card\" logo by Philip Morris.
The coders also used the four-point scale adapted by Wakefield and colleagues to rate the visual impact of cigarette advertising inside and outside each store.
The 28 scale value ranges from 0 tick = advertising no to 3 tick = everwhere everywhere/\"on your face.
Store observations have been completed before determining which stores are popular among teenagers, so coding personnel are blind in assigning stores to this category.
Stores by type: convenience store, pharmacy/pharmacy, grocery/deli, liquor, supermarket.
Retail and/or total square feet of all stores in the sample are not available from the county tax assessor\'s office.
Instead, the cash register total is used as an agent for the size of the store as it relates to the total square foot height of the store available for this number (n = 39 39, r = monthly. 98, p < 0. 001).
Only two of the 50 stores (4%) rejected the coder\'s request to spend 20 minutes on a point-of-
The two encoders observed six randomly selected stores independently, and the Inter-code reliability of all measures was good.
The highest intra-class correlation coefficient (ICCs) (1) was obtained when calculating the cash register. 0) and age-of-sale signs (0.
97), and rating the visual impact of the advertisement (0. 96);
Statistics on the marketing materials and product surfaces of young brands have achieved lower intercoder reliability (ICCs is 0. 86 and 0.
74 respectively ).
In order to determine which of the 48 stores are popular with teenagers, in three secondary schools in Tracy, each secondary school has a class with focus groups.
Students are required to nominate 12 stores from the list of all retail tobacco stores in the school catchment area (the area in which each school attracts students ).
Some of the same stores were nominated at different schools, with a total of 27 stores.
Data investigating the perception of youth on retail environments (stores) confirm these options --an in-
For the class survey of 2125 students in grades 6-8 (11-14 years old), their samples and procedures are described elsewhere.
Each school survey depicts photos and addresses of 12 designated stores and measures how often students visit each store in the past month.
More than 1 out of 3 students (38%) visit at least one of the 12 stores per day, and 28% visit at least 2-3 times a week in one of the 12 stores, at least 14% people visit one of the 12 stores a week.
The focus group identified two of the 27 popular stores as being re-classified because more than 80% of the students surveyed reported never shopping there. Independent-
The sample t-test compares the number of cigarette marketing materials and shelf space in popular stores for teenagers and other stores in the same community, as well as the visual impact of cigarette advertising.
The number of marketing materials and shelf space for the \"youth brands\" (marl Road, camel, Newport) and other brands of the two groups of stores were also compared.
To accommodate different store sizes, this count is usually divided by the number of cash registers.
28 we report an unadjusted average because there is no significant difference in the average size of stores popular with teenagers and other stores (p = rw0.
63), the unadjusted numbers are easier to explain, and the conclusions of the adjusted and unadjusted mean test are basically the same.
Given that the distribution of some measurements is skewed, we also performed Mann-
The Whitney U test, but the results did not differ from the reported parameter test.
Results there were 22 Average (SD) stores in 48 stores. 6 (21.
5) brand cigarette marketing materials and 123. 8 (98.
9) the product side of each store.
Among the shops popular with teenagers, these numbers have increased to 31. 0 (24. 5) and 153. 1 (102.
3) each store, respectively (Table 1 ).
Combined with all the brand impressions of marketing materials and products, teens reached an average of 184. 1 (109.
2) cigarette brand impression of each store.
View this table: View the inline View pop-up table 1 the average (SD) number of cigarette marketing materials for cigarette and its visual effects affected by store popularity (Tracy, California) have 3.
The number of cigarette advertisements on the shop window popular for teenagers is 4 times that of other stores in the same community (Table 1 ).
Consumers\' impressions of the number of cigarette marketing materials also confirm the gap between the two groups of stores.
The visual impact of cigarette advertising in the general public was significantly greater than in other stores (Table 1 ).
The three most popular brands for teenagers (marl Road, Camel and Newport) make up 45% of all cigarette marketing materials in 48 stores and 45% of all cigarette shelf space.
The marketing materials of the popular shops for teenagers are almost three times that of the other stores in the same community, and the shelf space of marl Road, Camel and Newport is twice that of the other stores in the same community (Table 2 ).
One possible explanation for this difference is that popular shops among teenagers are more likely to be the type of stores (convenience stores, alcohol and small grocery stores) that usually contain the most tobacco marketing ).
However, the X2 test showed that there was no significant difference in the distribution of store types between popular stores and other stores.
View this table: View inline View pop-up table 2 cigarette marketing materials quantity and shelf space by brand and store popularity (Tracy, California) another reasonable explanation is, shops popular among teenagers are also popular among adults, so there are more ads for best-selling brands (marl Road, Camel and Newport.
However, we found that there was no difference in the number of marketing materials and the shelf space of cigarette brands between mass stores and other stores except marl Road, Camel and Newport (Table 1 ).
We also did not find a significant difference in the number of marketing materials in the stores where three best-selling beer brands (Budweiser, Miller and Heineken) were popular among teenagers (average (SD) 255 (25.
0) and other stores (23. 5 (24. 2)).
Finally, we tested whether the identification signs needed by the tobacco industry to buy tobacco are more popular in stores among teenagers than in other stores.
California law requires signatures on each cash register to warn minors of the illegal sale of tobacco, but there is no law stipulating the number or location of such warnings provided to retailers by the tobacco industry.
Ironically, the shops that are popular with teenagers display more industry signs and shelves to promote marl Road, camels and new harbor, but there are no more signs that the industry is preventing minors from buying these products illegally. 9 (2.
4) than other stores (3. 7 (3. 2)).
According to the study, cigarettes are sold more in shops where teenagers shop
Especially the most popular brand of cigarettes among young smokers.
Compared with other stores in the same community, cigarette marketing materials displayed outside the popular stores among teenagers are more than three times the original ones, its marketing materials are almost three times as much as marl Road, Camel and Newport, with twice as much shelf space as marl Road, Camel and Newport.
The three brands account for more than 80% of cigarettes purchased by American teenagers.
29 stores in the United States (marl Road, camel, Winston and Newport) three of the four most advertised brands are the four with the largest sales revenue (marl Road, Newport, Dolar, camel ).
31 The relationship between market share and the popularity of store marketing materials and product faces deserves further study, especially since advertising has a stronger relationship with the choice of youth cigarette brands than adults.
This study is the first time we are aware of measuring the shelf space of cigarettes as an indicator of retail tobacco marketing.
The fact that Marl Road, Camel and Newport account for 45% of all marketing materials in 48 stores and 45% of all cigarette shelf space can be purely coincidental.
This may also indicate that tobacco companies believe that self-space dedicated to brands is as important as other forms of internal spaceStore marketing.
Study restrictions school-based surveys did not assess the frequency of young people visiting all retail tobacco stores in school catchment areas.
Therefore, we cannot confirm that unpopular stores are less frequently visited than stores nominated by focus groups.
However, incorrect classification may reduce the observed differences between the two groups of stores.
Future research should be done in other ways, such as business interviews or consumer marketing data, to determine which stores are most popular among young people.
This paper adds to previous studies that found that in shop windows 300 metres from the school, cigarette advertising is more than in stores further away from the school, but lacks information about teenage shopping.
The study combines school-based surveys with retail observations to determine whether stores where teenagers often shop more vigorously promote cigarettes.
These stores contain more marketing materials and shelf space on marl Road, Camel and Newport than other stores in the same community.
Eliminating advertising alone may not be enough to significantly reduce youth exposure to cigarette brand impressions in stores, as the advantages of these impressions come from product presentation.
Future restrictions on retail tobacco marketing should take into account the potential impact of cigarette packaging and advertising.
The current research only divides marketing materials and products into four brand categories --
Camel Road, Camel, Newport or whatever.
While \"other brands\" are potential rough comparisons of \"youth brands\", it is unlikely that one or two brands will account for most of the marketing material recorded in the \"other\" category.
In the survey of 1565 stores in the United States, marl Road, Camel and Newport accounted for 46% of all cigarette marketing materials, and 7 of the remaining 10 brands accounted for 42%, the remaining 12% are countless other brands.
33. due to the lack of reliable information on the total number of cigarette brands advertised in stores, it is difficult to understand to what extent brands favored by teenage smokers dominate the retail environment.
In fact, it would be helpful if the FTC or other organizations kept a list of cigarette brands sold.
Although the study examined a small portion of shop samples from a community in California, the observations on the number of cigarette marketing materials were very similar to those from larger, more representative samples.
For example, in the California sample of 569 stores, the average number of cigarette marketing materials was slightly lower than the average number (22.
The proportion of marketing materials for Marl Road and camel was 7 v 25, 7, and samples of Newport in this sample with sample7, California, and 1565 stores in the United States (45%, 42% and 46%, respectively) quite.
30 using standardized protocols to quantify the marketing materials and shelf space of cigarettes, future research should compare the number of marketing materials in countries with different regulations at the point of sale and determine whether teenagers are over-exposed to cigarette marketing materials, especially the brands favored by young smokers.
Several examples illustrate how tobacco companies in the United States have successfully avoided advertising restrictions at the point of sale.
MSA prohibits cigarette advertising on billboards and limits advertisements in magazines and sponsorship activities, including only two regulations that affect store advertising.
34 one regulation limits the area of external advertising to 14 square feet, and the other prohibits the use of comics in stores or elsewhere to advertise cigarettes.
S. Food and Drug Administration\'s stricter regulationsBlack Missionand-
White, plain text ads and no self-help display
No judicial review was passed.
S. Supreme Court has also vetoed an MIT law banning advertising cigarettes within 5 feet of stores --
Eye level in children.
36 The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control does not specify the point of sale in the recommendation against tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship.
37 However, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recognizes larger and more vivid warning labels on cigarette packaging, such as those in Canada and Brazil, which are clearly visible in stores and may be reduced
38 countries, such as Ireland, New Zealand and Thailand, as well as several provinces in Canada and some states in Australia, have reduced young people\'s exposure to tobacco marketing by banning tobacco advertising at the point of sale.
In order to prevent smoking, it is also recommended that merchants store their cigarettes in invisible places, bins above their heads, or under the counter.
39. According to this study, this practice can reduce the impression that American teenagers are exposed to cigarette brands in stores by 83%.
This study is to report the youth self-report
Store observations show that popular shops for teenagers contain more marketing materials and shelf space on marl Road, Camel and Newport than other stores in the same community.
It is clear that it is necessary to replicate larger samples in other jurisdictions to determine whether this is a general pattern or an isolated event.
Whether tobacco companies are interested in targeting young people at the point of sale is also worth further investigation.
In fact, it is not surprising that in an environment where tobacco companies are increasingly restricted to access traditional advertising venues, such as billboards, magazines and other media, it is not surprising that the site is strategically used to reach young people.
When cigarette packaging is an increasingly important part of tobacco marketing, 24, 40, 41. the study emphasizes the need to develop strategies to reduce the number and impact of youth exposure to cigarette brand impressions in stores.
The study was funded by CA67850, a public health service grant from the National Cancer Institute.
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